The refined of petroleum or crude oil. It is origin successful drilling the oil well in Titusville, Pennsylvania, the U.S. in 1859. In past petroleum or crude oil was available in very small quantities. Limited availability restricted the petroleum uses to medicinal and special purpose. In some year with the discovery of ” Rock Oil” in Northwestern Pennsylvania. Crude oil available in large quantity to develop the larger scale processing system. In the past year petroleum or crude oil refinery employed by simple distillation units. It separates the various constituents of petroleum by heating the crude oil mixtures in a vessel and condenses it vapors into the liquid fraction. First product after distillation was kerosene, which provides a more abundant clean burning lamp oil.
The perfection of oil drilling techniques quickly spread in Russia. In 1890 Russia was producing large quantities of kerosene and fuel oils. The primary use of crude oil, a single barrel of crude oil can produce the many components, which is given below with percentage:
- 42% Gasoline
- 22% Diesel
- 9% Jet Fuel
- 5% Fuel Oil
- 4% Liquefied Petroleum Gases
- 18% Other products
The important part of the refinery was distillation. Distillation is a process that heats the crude oil and separates into the fraction. Crude oil is heated, vaporized and fed into the column has plates in it. The material is separated from their boiling point.
It indicates that as the liquids are separated, the top end materials are gases and lighter liquids, but as you go down the column, the products have a higher boiling point, the molecular size gets bigger, the flow of the materials gets thicker (i.e., increasing viscosity), and the sulfur (S) content typically stays with the heavier materials. Notice we are not using the chemical names, but the common mixture of chemicals. Gasoline represents the carbon range of ~ C5-C8, naptha/kerosene (aka jet fuel) C8-C12, diesel C10-C15, etc. As we discuss the refinery, we will also discuss important properties of each fuel.
The important Product in the refinery is gasoline. The consumer demand requires the 40-50 barrels per 100 barrel of crude oil. The main issue of the consumer is
1) Quality suitability of gasoline
2) quantity suitability.
The engine was developed to use gasoline to be known as the Otto engine. It contains a four-stroke piston. The first stroke is the intake stroke – a valve opens, allows a certain amount of gasoline and air, and the piston moves down. The second stroke is the compression stroke – the piston moves up and valves close, for that the gasoline and air that came in the piston during the first stroke are compressed. The third stroke happens due to the spark plug ignites of the gasoline/air mixture, pushing the piston down. The fourth stroke is the exhaust stroke, where the exhaust valve opens and the piston moves up back.
This is a Fossil fuel
- It is made up of the mixture of Methane+Ethane and some traces of Propane.
- It can be artificially prepared by induction of coal which is called synthetic natural gas.
Refining is a process of separating petroleum into useful fraction and removal of undesirable impurity.
Crude oil is heated to 400-degree centigrade in coiled pipes in furnace and vapors are produced due to the large fractionated column from near it bottom
The refining of petroleum is done with big refining-:
- The first step is the naturalization of crude oil. It is done by washing with acidic or basic.
- The heating is done in the furnace up to 673 Kelvin, then its vapor is introduced into the fractional column. The column is divided into no of compartments by the means of shelves which are covered with bubble caps that allow light and volatile compound to pass up while heavier one settles down.
- Each self-has overflow pipes which keep liquid to certain flow and allow to rest to slow down during fractional distillation with low boiling point rise up into tar and condensed at different levels depending upon the different boiling point.
- Firstly add 673 Kelvin all the component vapors leaving behind the Asphalt as hot mixture rises with higher boiling point liquifies first and is collected. Then a little higher component having lower boiling point liquifies and so on. Gas that does not condense escape from the top.