Distillation

Distillation is a process of separating the component or substances from a liquid mixture by using appropriate methods or by vapourisation and subsequent condensation at another place.

The distillation process involve two step:-

  1. Converting a liquid into a vapour phase.
  2. Transferring the vapour into another place and recovering liquid by condensation.

The feed liquid is known as distill and the condensed liquid is known distillate or condensate.

Distillation has many application:-

  1. In the Fossil fuel industry, it helps in obtaining material from crude oils for fuels and chemical feedstocks.
  2. It permits separations of air into its component- oxygen, Nitrogen, and Argon.
  3. It is a very old method of desalination.

Distillation is of many types are as follow:-

  1. Simple Distillation
  2. Vaccum Distillation
  3. Fractional Distillation
  4. Batch Distillation
  5. Continuous Distillation
  6. Azeotropic Distillation

Application

1. Separation of volatile oils:-

Volatile oil are separated from cloves and eucalyptus by the method of steam distillation.

2. Purification of Organic Solvent:-

Simple distillation method is used for the purification of liquid having single component as a measure fraction. Simple distillation method is also used for determining the boiling range of liquid. It also gives information regarding purity. Absolute alcohols can be obtained as a azeotropic distillation.

3. Manufacturing of official operation:-

Distilled water and water for injection are prepared as per the specification of pharma by simple and compression distillation method.

4. Refining of Petroleum Product

In a petroleum industry the crude oil is refined into different fraction using flash distillation. Example Petroleum, Ether etc.

5. Recovery of Solvent

Solvents are used for extraction of drugs from plant and synthesis reaction mixtures. These solvent must be recovered in order to prevent enviromental contamination. The recovered solvent may be recyled for further etc.

6. Quality Control Method:-

Azeotropic distillation method is used for determination of the water content is a substance using toluene according to IP. (Indian Pharmacopoeia)

7. Separation Of drug Obtained from Chemical Process:-

Vitamin A is separted from fish liver oil using the method of molecular distillation

8. Purification of drugs obtain from Chemical Processes:_

Chemical processes involves the conversion of raw material into the product. The products are seperated from the reaction mixture and purify using method of distillation.

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